تبلیغات
Art Ressearch and Art Philosophy
there is place for us in the clould ,dont hesitate and fly

ظرفیت های ارشد

یکشنبه 9 اسفند 1388 02:45 ب.ظ

نویسنده : مهدی قبادی

ظرفیت رشته های کارشناسی ارشد گروه هنر در کنکور کارشناسی ارشد ۸۸

ارشد پژوهش هنر( کد گرایش ۱) ( کد گروه ۱۳۵۹)

ارشد فلسفه هنر ( کد گرایش ۲) ( کد گروه ۱۳۵۹)

ارشد هنر اسلامی( کد گرایش ۴) ( کد گروه ۱۳۵۹)

ارشد پژوهش هنر

روزانه تهران: ۳۱ نفر

روزانه شهرستان: ۳۴ نفر

شبانه تهران: ۲۳ نفر

شبانه شهرستان: ۱۵ نفر

غیرانتفاعی(دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ تهران تهران) : ۱۵ نفر

پیام نور : ۶ نفر

کل ظرفیت: ۱۲۴ نفر

ارشد فلسفه هنر

روزانه تهران: ۱۸ نفر

شبانه تهران: ۱۷ نفر

کل ظرفیت: ۳۵ نفر

ارشد هنر اسلامی

روزانه تهران: ۷ نفر

روزانه شهرستان: ۳۲ نفر

شبانه تهران: ۰ نفر

شبانه شهرستان: ۵ نفر




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Soltan Mohammad

سه شنبه 6 بهمن 1388 01:59 ق.ظ

نویسنده : مهدی قبادی

Nizam-eddin Sultan Muhammad Tabrizi

(Unique artist of the period and the Crown of time)

 

There is little information about biography of Sultan Muhammad Mosavar Tabrizi. It's not obvious when he was born, but there is no doubt that he had been born in Tabriz. Tabriz had been the center of painting and calligraphy and related arts, especially book makin since Rashid-eddin Fazl-allah had been found Rob-e Rashidi School and gathered artists there. This artistic tradition of Tabriz caused appearance of famous Masters as Ahmad Musa, Shams-eddin, Joneid, Abd-olvahy and Mir Ali Tabrizi, calligrapher and founder of Nasta'liq calligraphy. This tradition which had been founded by Masters of calligraphy and painting had been benefited by the painters of later generations of Timurid and Turkman eras, and had been continued by artists as Pir Ahmad Bagheshmali Tabrizi, Pir Ahmad Zarkub Tabrizi, Mir Ali Mosavar Tabrizi, Qavam-eddin Mojalad Tabrizi and others. Master Sultan Muhammad Tabrizi had also benefited this tradition which was common in Qaraqoyunlu and Aq-qoyunlu eras in Tabriz. It seems that Sultan Muhammad had passed the first period of his artistic life in court of Sultan Ya'qub Aq-qoyunlu and had worked accompanying Sheykhi Ya'qubi, Dervish Muhammad, and other Masters in the workshop of Tabriz court. When Shah Ismael Safavi occupied Tabriz in 906 H, he captured the artistic heritage including the workshop of royal library. As Sultan Muhammad had been working in the workshop at that time, he became one of the artists of court of Shah Ismael. It seems that his art being matured, he became the head of the workshop of Shah Ismael. He participated in some artistic projects and also in painting of Khamse of Nizami in 855 H which its unfinished book was capture by Shah Ismael. It seems that book makin of Khatayi Divan of Shah Ismael had been done under his control. However, it is obvious that Sultan Muhammad had participated in paintings of an unfinished Shanameh which its beautiful illustration of Sleeping Rustam has been remained which had been created by Sultan Muhammad.

 
 

Shah Ismael had occupied Herat in 916 H and captured all the artistic possessions of Herat and also artists. He appointed his 2 year old son, Tahmaseb Mirza, with his chancellor as Heart's ruler and made some artists to teach him art. One of these Masters was Sultan Muhammad. Some researchers believe that Sultan Muhammad had traveled to Herat in order to teach Tahmaseb Mirza and in doing this, great Masters of Herat school as Kamal-eddin Behzad, Aqa Mirk, Mir Mosavar, Shah Mahmud Neishaburi and others accompanied him.

 

However before 930 H and beginning of Shah Tahmaseb's ruling, Sultan Muhammad participated in book makin and painting of Masnavi-e Jamal va Jalal Muhammad Asefi, Book of poems of Mir Alishir Navayi, Masnavi-e Guy va chogan (khalnameh) which had been hand written by Tahmaseb Mirza and had been offered to Qazi Jahan Qazvini by him.

Art researchers believe that Shah Ismael ordered to start the project of Shah Tahmasebi Shahnameh and had stopped the project of previous Shahnameh from which “Sleeping Rustam is remained. He ordered book makin of this Shahnameh in honor of his son's return to Tabriz in 928 H. After Shah Ismael's death in 930 H and replacement of Shah Tahmaseb, this project had been continued, the first 100 pages were under control of Sultan Muhammad, and the rest were under control of Mir Mosavar and then Aqa Mirk. Sultan Muhammad's art works in this project are paintings of Court of Kiumars, Sadeh celebration, breaking up Devils by Tahmures, Killing black devil by Hushang which is one of the greatest paintings of Sultan Muhammad in Shah Tahmasebi Shahname. At this time Sultan Muhammad, Behzad and Aqa Mirk were the artists who Shah Tahmaseb paid attention to them and had association with. Sultan Muhamad had painted some scenes in 937 and 939 H in Divan Hafiz of Sam Mirza, Shah Tahmaseb's brother. Some of them are “Nowrooz feast, “Two Lovers and “Divinely and Worldly drunkenness.   “Nowrooz feast and “Divinely and Worldly drunkenness are signed as Sultan Muhammad Iraqi; here Iraqi means Persian Iraq which Tabriz was a part of it.

 

In 946-49 H he had provided another great project for Shah Tahmaseb which was Khamse of Nizami. This masterpiece now maintains in British library in London (acc. no. 2265). In paintings of this project there are signatures of some artists as Sultan Muhammad. Artists of this project were Shah Mahmud Neishaburi, Sultah Muhammad, Aqa Mirk, Mirza Ali, Mir seyyed Ali and Mozafar Ali. One of the paintings of this project is “Prophet's Ascension by Sultan Muhammad that shows the highest point of art of Safavid era. In this painting, he painted a scene which links soul and nature of human to the other world. Other masterpieces of Sultan Muhammad in Khamse of Nizami are Khosro and Shirin's swimming, Old woman and Sultan Sanjar. Khamse of Nizami project shows that Sultan Muhammad was alive until 940 H decade. He had died in the beginning of 950 H. decade and was buried in Kamal Tabriz garden beside Behzad and Kamal Khojandi.

If Kamal-eddin Bezad is representative of highest point of painting of eastern Iran during Timurid era, Sultan Muhammad is representative of highest point of painting in western Iran during Safavid era. As a creative talented artist, he could link artistic language of eastern Iran to art of western Iran to create a perfect, refine and matured art. There is a kind of satire in his works especially in “Divinely and Worldly drunkenness, Court of Kiumars, and breaking up Devils by Tahmures. Sultan Muhammad used Qezelbashi tradition in Safavid painting for the first time and made it widespread, other artists were his followers in this field. Mirza Ali was his son and student and also a famous painter of workshop of Tabriz school. Although some said that Mohammadi Naqash was his son, he was his student. Mir Zein-ol Abedin, Qasem Iraqi (Tabrizi), Mohammad Beik, Shah Tahmaseb, Mir Hasan Dehlavi and Borj-Ali Ardebili (indirect) were his students.

 

Sultan Muhammad is pioneer of one page painting, and it seems that Muhammadi Heravi had learnt his artistic qualities from him. Nowadays there are at least three one page painting which are attributed to Sultan Muhammad and one of them is figure of Shah Tahmaseb. In this painting Shah Tahmaseb held a pillow in his hands and lean to it studying. An inlaid belt is seen below his clothing and wore bejeweled Qezelbashi hat. He has an earring. There is a brilliant calligraphy with beautiful flexible lines which explains mastering of Sultan Muhammad. In another one page painting a young man is shown who seems to be a prince leaned to a blossomed tree studying. The young man wore Qezelbashi hat and a part of his clothing is loosed on the stones covered with plants. In the other one page painting a prince is standing with a flower in his hand in a way that he is offering it to someone. He has a belt and a dagger hidden in it. He also wore a Qezelbashi hat.

Court of Kiumars by Sultan Muhammad is masterpiece of Iranian painting. This painting is in the highest point of composition, color and psychoanalytic characterization. It is said that he had been spent at least five years of his life for this painting. Dust Muhammad, historian and his contemporary friend, believes that all the artists and painters adored this masterpiece and confessed their own inability. In painting this, Sultan Muhammad is a worldly creative artist who illustrated all aspects of beauty of the world in one natural scene. Human, wild world and nature are main message of this painting that will be under control of human and this dominance started by Kiumars. This message had been illustrated in the best way in this painting.

In “Divinely and Worldly drunkenness, Sultan Muhammad is drunk of mystics wine. In implication the mystic concepts in this painting he is unique. It's obvious that Sultan Muhammad were acquaintance with mystic concepts, and may be he was interested in them, too. He had illustrated the two divinely and worldly worlds in a tree which shows his enlightened, delicate and mystical mind.

 

In “Prophet's ascension which might be his last work, he himself ascended to heaven. In the composition of this painting, flames around prophet's head symbolize flames of his inner feelings. In this painting everything is perfectly fresh: eagerness and sweetness of the angels, beauty of Gabriel in front of angels, dancing wrapped clouds in the mysterious lapis lazuli sky, which explains his gifted and talented mind. Such a meaningful and heavenly painting is the last message of Sultan Muhammad, a painting from the last prophet.

 

Dr. Azhand                          

            Member of Scientific board of            

 International Congress of Sultan Muhammad




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آخرین ویرایش: یکشنبه 9 اسفند 1388 02:49 ب.ظ

Classicism

سه شنبه 6 بهمن 1388 01:54 ق.ظ

نویسنده : مهدی قبادی

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint and compression we are simply objecting to the classicism of classic art. A violent emphasis or a sudden acceleration of rhythmic movement would have destroyed those qualities of balance and completeness through which it retained until the present century its position of authority in the restricted repertoire of visual images." [1] Classicism, as Clark noted, implies a canon of widely accepted ideal forms, whether in the Western canon that he was examining in The Nude (1956), or the Chinese classics.

Classicism is a force which is often present in post-medieval European and European influenced traditions; however, some periods felt themselves more connected to the classical ideals than others, particularly the Age of Reason, the Age of Enlightenment, and some classicizing movements in Modernism.[citation needed]

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General term

Not all heroic nudes are classical: Fountain of the Four Rivers, Bernini, 1651

Classicism is a specific genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture, art, and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources and an emphasis on society. It was particularly expressed in the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason.

Classicism first made an appearance as such during the Italian renaissance when the fall of Byzantium and rising trade with the Islamic cultures brought a flood of knowledge about, and from, the antiquity of Europe. Until that time the identification with antiquity had been seen as a continuous history of Christendom from the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine I. Renaissance classicism introduced a host of elements into European culture, including the application of mathematics and empiricism into art, humanism, literary and depictive realism, and formalism. Importantly it also introduced Polytheism, or "paganism", and the juxtaposition of ancient and modern.

The classicism of the Renaissance lead to, and gave way to, a different sense of what was "classical" in the 16th and 17th centuries. In this period classicism took on more overtly structural overtones of orderliness, predictability, the use of geometry and grids, the importance of rigorous discipline and pedagogy, as well as the formation of schools of art and music. The court of Louis XIV was seen as the center of this form of classicism, with its references to the gods of Olympus as a symbolic prop for absolutism, its adherence to axiomatic and deductive reasoning, and its love of order and predictability. This period sought the revival of classical art forms, including Greek drama and music. Opera, in its modern European form, had its roots in attempts to recreate the combination of singing and dancing with theatre thought to be the Greek norm. Examples of this appeal to classicism included Dante, Petrarch, and Shakespeare in poetry and theatre. Tudor drama, in particular, modeled itself after classical ideals and divided works into Tragedy and Comedy. Studying ancient Greek became regarded as essential for a well-rounded education in the liberal arts.

Classicist door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic

The Renaissance also explicitly returned to architectural models and techniques associated with Greek and Roman antiquity, including the golden rectangle as a key proportion for buildings, the classical orders of columns, as well as a host of ornament and detail associated with Greek and Roman architecture. They also began reviving plastic arts such as bronze casting for sculpture, and used the classical naturalism as the foundation of drawing, painting and sculpture.

The Age of the Enlightenment identified itself with a vision of antiquity which, while continuous with the classicism of the previous century, was shaken by the physics of Sir Isaac Newton, the improvements in machinery and measurement, and a sense of liberation which they saw as being present in the Greek civilization, particularly in its struggles against the Persian Empire. The ornate, organic, and complexly integrated forms of the baroque were to give way to a series of movements that regarded themselves expressly as "classical" or "neo-classical", or would rapidly be labelled as such. For example the painting of Jacques-Louis David which was seen as an attempt to return to formal balance, clarity, manliness, and vigor in art.

The 19th century saw the classical age as being the precursor of academicism, including such movements as uniformitarianism in the sciences, and the creation of rigorous categories in artistic fields. Various movements of the romantic period saw themselves as classical revolts against a prevailing trend of emotionalism and irregularity, for example the Pre-Raphaelites. By this point classicism was old enough that previous classical movements received revivals; for example, the Renaissance was seen as a means to combine the organic medieval with the orderly classical. The 19th century continued or extended many classical programs in the sciences, most notably the Newtonian program to account for the movement of energy between bodies by means of exchange of mechanical and thermal energy.

The 20th century saw a number of changes in the arts and sciences. Classicism was used both by those who rejected, or saw as temporary, transfigurations in the political, scientific, and social world and by those who embraced the changes as a means to overthrow the perceived weight of the 19th century. Thus, both pre-20th century disciplines were labelled "classical" and modern movements in art which saw themselves as aligned with light, space, sparseness of texture, and formal coherence.

In the present day philosophy classicism is used as a term particularly in relation to Apollonian over Dionysian impulses in society and art; that is a preference for rationality, or at least rationally guided catharsis, over emotionalism.

In the theatre

Molière in classical dress, by Nicolas Mignard, 1658

Classicism in the theatre was developed by 17th century French playwrights from what they judged to be the rules of Greek classical theatre, including the "Classical unities" of time, place and action, found in the Poetics of Aristotle.

  • Unity of time referred to the need for the entire action of the play to take place in a fictional 24-hour period
  • Unity of place meant that the action should unfold in a single location
  • Unity of action meant that the play should be constructed around a single 'plot-line', such as a tragic love affair or a conflict between honour and duty.

Examples of classicist playwrights:

Victor Hugo was among the first French playwrights to break these conventions. Classicists did not approve of the plays of Shakespeare.[verification needed]

In architecture

Villa Rotonda, Palladio, 1591

Classicism in architecture developed during the Italian Renaissance, notably in the writings and designs of Leon Battista Alberti and the work of Filippo Brunelleschi. It places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of Classical antiquity and in particular, the architecture of Ancient Rome, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. This style quickly spread to other Italian cities and then to France, Germany, England, Russia and elsewhere.

In the sixteenth century, Sebastiano Serlio helped codify the classical orders and Palladio's legacy evolved into the long tradition of Palladian architecture. Building off of these influences, the seventeenth-century architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren firmly established classicism in England.

For the development of classicism from the mid-eighteenth-century onwards, see Neoclassical architecture.

In the fine arts

Italian Renaissance painting and sculpture are marked by their renewal of classical forms, motifs and subjects. In the fifteenth century Leon Battista Alberti was important in theorizing many of the ideas for painting that came to a fully-realised product with Raphael's School of Athens during the High Renaissance. The themes continued largely unbroken into the seventeenth century, when artists such as Nicolas Poussin and Charles Le Brun represented of the more rigid classicism. Like Italian classicizing ideas in the fifteenth and sixteenth century, it spread through Europe in the mid to late 1600s.

Later classicism in painting and sculpture from the mid-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is generally referred to a Neoclassicism.




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پژوهش و فلسفه هنر

شنبه 3 بهمن 1388 06:56 ب.ظ

نویسنده : مهدی قبادی
نفرات برتر پژوهش هنر کیستند و جه درصدهای دارند؟پیام بگذارید


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